German Armed Forces Research 1918-1945
The 1.Fallschrim-Armee was formed between 11.05.43 and 4.01.44, in Nancy.
It became operational in June 1944 under the command of
Generaloberst Kurt Student. It was based on XI.Fliegerkorps which had been
formed in 1940 to control 7.Flieger-Division and the 22.Landungs-Division
for the 1940 campaign in Belgium and Holland. In 1941, the IX.Fliegerkorp
controlled troops for the Invasion of Crete. From 1942 through early 1943,
the XI.Fliegerkorps was involved in training and development of airborne
warfare as well as planning for a projected airborne attack on Malta. The Korps was
responsible for 2.Fallschirm-Jäger-Division and the German takeover of
Rome after Italy capitulated to the Allies in 1943. In 1944 it was reformed
into the 1.Fallschirm-Armee.
Initially, the 1.Fallschirm-Amree was used as a training command attached to Heeresgruppe D in France. When the allies landed in France in June of 1944, the Armee came under the direct control of OKW, while continuing its training duties. The Amree went into combat for the first time on the 4th of September, 1944, at the Lower Rhein while attached to Heeresgruppe B.
Following the Allied breakthrough in France, the 1.Fallschirm-Armee took control of the defensive lines in Belgium and eastern Holland. Organic elements of the Armee included armored units and heavy artillery, a parachute assault Battalion (under Hauptman Edurd Georg Huebner), and the Fallschirm-Aufklärung-Bataillon 12. The Armee controlled the Gen.Kdo. II.Fallschirmkorp as well as other regular Heer Korps, along with several other fragments of units. Later, Kurt Student became commander of Armeegruppe H and was replaced by Generaloberst Alfred Schlemm.
The 1.Fallschirm-Armee strongly contested the Allied Market-Garden operation in September 1944, and contributed to the ultimate failure of the operation. From December 1944, the Armee was under Heeresgruppe H and from April 1945, directly under Oberbefehlshaber Nordwest. During November 1944 the unit was known as Armeegruppe Student with 15th Army attached. In late 1944 and early 1945, the Armee continued its defense of Holland and the approaches to the Rhine river. Later, it defended the east bank of the Rhine. The 1.Fallschirm-Armee surrendered in the Oldenburg area in April 1945.
The Armee controlled the following units
* the 15th Army consisted of the following units on 5.11.44:
LXXXVIII. AK: 59. ID, 712. ID, 256. ID
LXVII. AK: 711. ID, 719. ID, 245. ID, 346. ID, 85. ID
Reserve: 70. ID, 226. ID
GenOb Kurt Student 5.01.44 - 11.17.44
GenOb Alfred Schlemm 11.18.44 - 3.19.45
GenOb Günther Blumentritt (Heer), 3.20.45 - 4.09.45
GenOb Kurt Student 4.10.45 - 4.27.45
GenOb Erich Straube (Heer), 4.28.45 - 5.08.45
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